Child Growth and Development
Here you will find detailed information on child growth and development. A basic key in working with children–is the knowledge of child development! This category will provide information as timely topics arise-portions of which would be appropriate to post at your information center or newsletter.
AGE LEVEL CHARACTERISTICS
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: AGES 6-8
- Want Love, affection, and acceptance
- Take themselves seriously
- Alternately aggressive and sympathetic
- Fear imaginary creatures
- Fear being alone–girls show more fear than boys at the same age
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: AGES 9-11:
- Show loyalty to peers
- Concerned over group recognition and approval, becoming more conscious of self
- Find satisfaction in participation in community activities
- Embarrassed to show affection
- Assume a feeling of martyrdom with siblings
- Enjoy making family plans
- Influenced by praise
- Need to know they are of value to group
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: AGES 12-15
- Can be moody, restless, and often fantasize
- Less responsible due to fear of failure
- Spend time alone
- Interested in own bodies and personality
- Devalue parents and turn to others
- Can feel persecuted
CHILD LEARNING DEVELOPMENT
CHILD LEARNING DEVELOPMENT: AGES 6-8
- Short attention span
- Interested in fantasy and dramatic play
- Enjoy reading independently
- Not particularly interested in team games
- Like to play house
CHILD LEARNING DEVELOPMENT: AGES 9-11
- Vivid imaginations
- Concerned with pets and collect everything
- Want to learn more skills and do things for themselves
- Need to have varied activites to fit their individual interests, otherwise quickly bored
- Concerned about what other people think; Language more sophisticated
- Become interested in information, the world, and it’s people.
CHILD LEARNING DEVELOPMENT: AGES 12-15
- Some youth don’t begin things soon enough
- Easily distracted
- Ignore adult help in planning unless tactfully given
- Resent adult interference in activities
- Less energy due to rapid growth
- Interpret criticism from adults as personal
- Like to go places
COMPETITION: AGES 5-6
- Still into make believe, fantasy, and magical thinking.
- Generally don’t regard other children as rivals.
- Easily frustrated when unable to do things as well as they would like.
- Need to feel loved and secure when competing.
SUGGESTIONS FOR CAREGIVERS:
Play loosely structured games. Be flexible about rules. Keep the focus on fun!
COMPETITION: AGES 6-8
- Begin to understand and play by the rules.
- Compare themselves to friends to learn what is expected, but not to determine who is better.
- Relate loss to self-esteem, especially if parents stress winning.
- Need to feel secure when competing.
SUGGESTIONS FOR CAREGIVERS: Should encourage youth to compete in areas in which they are interested. Stress skill development rather than winning. Help children set and meet personal goals. Discourage tantrums, cheating, and unethical behavior
COMPETITION: AGES 9-10
- Children have a growing awareness of competition in the environment.
- A better understanding of ethics and rules of competition.
- Compare selves to others and formulate personal judgments.
- Need to focus on achieving small personal goals one at a time, learn how to become a team player, and cope with disappointment and defeat
- Need to be held accountable in following rules and good sportsmanship.
SUGGESTIONS FOR CAREGIVERS
- Should encourage youth to compete in areas in which they are interested.
- Stress skill development rather than winning.
- Help children set and meet personal goals.
- Discourage tantrums, cheating, and unethical behavior
CHILD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH:
SPIRIT AND SELF ESTEEM GAMES NEEDS…
Ages 2 to 7
Certain games work especially well at meeting common needs for fun at different developmental stages. For example, our very young children live in the moment and moods can change instantly from extreme joy to demanding anger. When faced with children’s lack of coping skills we can respond in a manner to match their mood—or redirect and change their focus. With young children look for games that show a fun way of looking at life and encourage cooperation
Ages 8 to 12…
During the middle years peer pressure begins to influence children’s spirits. The best games to help establish a high self-esteem is to play games that stay in touch with their own feelings. Games that explore ways of dealing with outside influences and encourage compassion for others—are also desirable.
Ages 13 to 18
Young teenagers have a strong sense of self—even though it’s sometimes riddled with insecurity and doubt. Encourage games that are designed to increase their trust in themselves and in their own inner wisdom. Games that enhance a sense of the young teenager’s history and sense of kindness are also good.
Adapted from Spirit Games by Barbara Sher
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2002
THE CHANGING NATURE OF PLAY
…Howard Chudacoff, a cultural historian at Brown University, discussed how play has changed. Up until recently children played outdoors, unsupervised engaged in freewheeling and imaginative play. However, today, children’s play is more scripted by their toys, more directed by the media, and more protected by anxious parents. In the NPR interview, Chudacoff talked about how these changes in how children play also results in changes in their cognitive and emotional development…
“It turns out that all that time spent playing make-believe actually helped children develop a critical cognitive skill called executive function. Executive function has a number of different elements, but a central one is the ability to self-regulate. Kids with good self-regulation are able to control their emotions and behavior, resist impulses, and exert self-control and discipline.
“We know that children’s capacity for self-regulation has diminished. A recent study replicated a study of self-regulation first done in the late 1940s, in which psychological researchers asked kids ages 3, 5, and 7 to do a number of exercises. One of those exercises included standing perfectly still without moving. The 3-year-olds couldn’t stand still at all, the 5-year-olds could do it for about three minutes, and the 7-year-olds could stand pretty much as long as the researchers asked. In 2001, researchers repeated this experiment. But, psychologist Elena Bodrova at the National Institute for Early Education Research says, the results were very different.
Today’s 5-year-olds were acting at the level of 3-year-olds 60 years ago, and today’s 7-year-olds were barely approaching the level of a 5-year-old 60 years ago,’ Bodrova explains. ‘So the results were very sad.’
“Sad because self-regulation is incredibly important. Poor executive function is associated with high dropout rates, drug use, and crime. In fact, good executive function is a better predictor of success in school than a child’s IQ. Children who are able to manage their feelings and pay attention are better able to learn. As executive function researcher Laura Berk explains, ‘Self-regulation predicts effective development in virtually every domain.'”
Read or listen to the entire NPR segment, “Old-Fashioned Play Builds Serious Skills,” (This would be a good one for your “Parents’ Center”. )
WHAT IS SCHOOL READINESS?
July 21, 2008
The 30th Anniversary issue of Exchange (March 2008) included a Beginnings Workshop section on “School Readiness” with articles by Nancy Carlsson-Paige, David Elkind, Lilian Katz, and Marjorie Kostelnik. In this section, David Elkind observed…
“The phrase ‘school readiness’ was, until recently, most often used in connection with a child’s preparedness to meet the demands of a first grade classroom. With the contemporary push down of the curriculum, readiness is now taken to mean the child’s preparedness to meet the demands of kindergarten. Whether in regard to first grade or kindergarten, this way of thinking assumes that school readiness resides entirely in the child’s head. It also assumes that readiness is primarily academic, namely, knowing one’s letters and numbers. In addition, readiness is often taken to mean that a child has acquired his or her knowledge of numbers and letters through one or another form of academic instruction. Finally, another interpretation of readiness is that it is a matter of maturation and is related to age. While all of these ideas about readiness are understandable, they happen to be incorrect. They are a misunderstanding as to what readiness is all about….
“Readiness DOES NOT reside in the child’s head. Likewise, the skills a child needs to succeed in most kindergartens are not knowing numbers and letters, but rather being able to communicate, follow instructions, and work cooperatively with other children. These skills seem to be best acquired in preschools that are developmentally and play oriented. Finally, while maturation plays a role in the attainment of schooling skills, the child’s experience is also an important contributor.
A true assessment of school readiness, therefore, must always take account of the child’s level of intellectual and social/emotional development, his or her experiential background, and the classroom expectations the child will encounter.”
SUPPORT FROM BRAIN RESEARCH
Suzanne Gellens, in her book, Activities that Build the Young Child’s Brain (Early Childhood Association of Florida), lists the ideas that early childhood professionals have known for years and are now confirmed by recent brain research:
- Every situation is a learning experience
- Children need to be nurtured and have physical contact with other people
- Children learn through their interactions with people and the environment
- Play is an essential component to learning
- Hands-on activities result in life-long learned skills
- When a child has a choice in selecting its own activities, involvement is increased
- All children’s senses need to be stimulated in an enriched atmosphere
- Activities presented to children should match their stage of development and their interest level
- There should be a balance between activity and rest; quiet learning and active learning
- Children need a loving, stress-free environment for optimal learning to occur. From ExchangeEeveryDay:3/12/2004
CHILDREN ARE NEVER TOO YOUNG TO LEARN A SECOND LANGUAGE…
Infants as young as 4 months who live in bilingual environments can distinguish between two languages, monitoring lip and facial movements. Babies also show a strong preference for the language their mother spoke during pregnancy.
Contrary to conventional wisdom, bilingual children are not delayed in language acquisition. In fact, words learned before age 5 have an added emotional kick, regardless of how many languages are learned. Because the child’s brain is developing so quickly, across so many regions, the words learned during this critical period carry thick visual and emotional associations….
Bilingualism enhances attention and cognitive control in kids and adults. Also bilinguals are better at learning additional languages, even if those languages bear little resemblance to the ones they already know.
Source: Psychology Today (October 2010; psychologytoday.com)
WHAT KIND OF BOOKS DO KIDS LIKE???[Books for Child Development]
BOOKS FOUR TO SIX YEAR OLDS
Buy books that combine bright, interesting pictures with a story line that keeps children interested. Popular books for young children include books with stories about families and day-to- day events. This is because children enjoy associating what they read with their own lives.
BOOKS FOR SCHOOL-AGE KIDS:
They can’t wait to learn how to read. They still enjoy having someone read to them, but they will be ready to try out their own skills. Some stories they usually like are about adventures, mysteries, and fantasy.
BOOKS FOR OLDER YOUTH:
Reading well on their own want to read books that are longer and have a subject matter that keeps them entertained for long periods of time. The Harry Potter books are of course some of the most requested books in the children’s literature market today.
Other themes of books that older children will appreciate are books where the protagonist solves a problem through the mastery of personal power. These types of books appeal to older children since it gives them a feeling of self control and personal growth. Of course, youth may not think of what they read in such a way, but they will still be reaping the benefits of positive and well written literature.
Also check out Tips in Reading to/with your child…
Child Development and Mathematics
Studies show that children who play with unit blocks in early childhood do better in algebra in middle school. But it’s important to note that the outcome of playing in the block area is NOT demonstrated until middle school! Math standards during the early years will automatically focus on low level, rote skills: memorization, repetition, and adult views of math knowledge. What makes this most destructive is that young children are operating within Piaget’s preoperational stage, which means they cannot think logically. Thus, bureaucrats creating standards and assessment often include things that children this age simply cannot even do….
“Math knowledge and dispositions are not created in a vacuum. Math is about manipulating things: objects, shapes, concepts, and relationships; reproducing and documenting the world; and constructing, building, and estimating….Thus, we must provide a myriad of opportunities for young children to have direct, concrete experiences in the real world.
What is the value of discussing the speed of light if you don’t understand light? Seeing snow accumulate day after day is a real way to understanding increase in quantity. Carrying a large boulder teaches about mass; swinging on a rope about force, angles, and speed. Field trips, extensive classroom m projects, exploration in nature, extensive use of the playground, observing the weather, etc., must all be central to our math curricula.”
These exerpts are from the article: “Math in Early Childhood,” by Francis Wardle (www.ChildCareExchange.com)
NUTRITION AND FOOD RELATED NEEDS FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT
HOW DO YOU KNOW IF CHILDREN ARE GETTING THE RIGHT AMOUNT OF NUTRITION FOR PROPER DEVELOPMENT?
The government’s food guidance system suggested servings are based on age, gender, and activity level. The examples below illustrate how school-age children’s needs differ.
A 6-year-old, active girl every day needs:
- 5 ounces from grain group
- 2 cups from vegetable group
- 1 1/2 cups from fruit group
- 3 cups from milk group
- 5 ounces from meat and beans group
- 5 teaspoons oils.
An 11-year-old, active boy needs this every day:
- 7 ounces from grain group
- 3 cups from vegetable group
- 2 cups from fruit group
- 3 cups from milk group
- 6 ounces from meat and beans group
- 6 teaspoons oils.
CALCIUM THE BONE BUILDER!
To build a strong, healthy skeleton that will last a lifetime, kids should be sure to “bone up” on calcium. From ages 11-24, children have the opportunity to maximize their bone density, filling their bones to “peak capacity.” The best sources of calcium are lowfat dairy products like yogurt, nonfat/1% milk and lowfat cheese, calcium-fortified soy milk and tofu, calcium-fortified orange juice, sardines or salmon with bones and broccoli.
NEW RECOMENDATIONS FOR DIETARY CALCIUM
AGE Recommended Calcium (milligrams)
1-3 Years 500
4-8 Years 800
9-18 Years 1300
19-50 Years 1000
51+ Years 1200
INVOLVE CHILDREN IN FOOD ACTIVITIES FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Children learn important nutrition concepts through daily experiences involving food. Shopping for food, comparing labels, taste testing new foods, cooking, creating simple recipes and analyzing food ads are just a few of the many ways kids can begin to discover the wonderful world of food!
PEER TEACHING ACTIVITIES…
In Debra Viadero’s article “Peer Tutoring’s Potential to Boost IQ Intrigues Educators” in the October 3, 2007 issue of Education Week, she writes that “over 30 years’ worth of studies of elementary-level peer-tutoring programs suggests that—
both the tutor and the tutee learn better when they teach each other than they do in regular teacher-led classrooms.”
Another study indicated that peer teaching activities result in nonacademic benefits such as students staying longer on task, exhibiting improved social skills and expressing more motivation than children in teacher-directed classrooms.
From schoolage note of the day Dec. 11, 2007
EXERCISE AND ACADEMIC SUCCESS
Printed in ExchangeEveryDay
With schools in the United States CUTTING BACK ON PHYSICAL EDUCATION in order to meet the goals of “No Child Left Behind”, studies are starting to show that this is A MOVE IN THE WRONG DIRECTION. For example, a study involving 163 overweight children in Augusta, Georgia, reported in Education Week (February 13, 2008; supports the cognitive benefits of exercise:
“… a cross-disciplinary research team randomly assigned children to one of three groups. One group received 20 minutes of physical activity every day after school. Another group got a 40-minute daily workout, and a third group got no special exercise sessions.”
After 14 weeks, the children who made the greatest improvement as measured by a standardized academic test and a test that measured their level of executive function ‘thinking processes that involve planning, organizing, abstract thought, or self-control’ were those who spent 40 minutes a day playing tag and taking part in other active games designed by the researchers. The cognitive and academic gains for the 20-minute-a-day group were half as large.”
NEGATIVE IMPACT OF EXCESSIVE TV WATCHING
According to the TRUCE
(Teachers Resisting Unhealthy Children’s Entertainment) website(www.truceteachers.org), excessive TV watching can have a negative impact on both the academic performance and health of children.
Children who watch a lot of television and movies spend less time reading, have shorter attention spans, and their vocabulary is not as highly developed. They are also more overweight since they tend to snack obsessively while watching television. They see food in ads and programs that promote unhealthy eating choices, and they tend to exercise less.” TRUCE recommends encouraging families to limit the amount of television that children watch (to 1 hour per day for example).
As alternatives to television:
Visit the library and attend library sponsored activities; Go for walks; Read books and tell stories together; Have a family game night; Do puzzles; Make sure TV snacks are healthy; Eat together as a family without TV; Resist junk food advertised on television.
OTHER PAGES THAT MY INTEREST YOU…
- Cheering on your child…(As in promoting good sportsmanship)
- Some wonderful ways to connect with our kids!
- Stamp Out Sibling Rivalry
- Tips in Reading to/with your child
For a great variety of other tip pages check out the Category List on the left hand side of each page…look under articles!
There you have it, the ultimate child growth and development guide. We hope this helps you with the milestones and stages of children’s development as well as help you with some tips to keep the development on track.